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- Ser Empreendedor
- Os Desafios do Mercado
- Caminho para o sucesso
- O modelo de Negócio
- Vantagens Competitivas
- Proposta de valor
- Simular a ideia
- Converter a ideia em negócio
Steve Jobs led the greatest turnaround in corporate history, taking a near-bankrupt Apple and turning it into one of the largest and most profitable companies in the world … but he didn’t look that great on paper. He wasn’t an engineer. He couldn’t write a line of code. He didn’t have an MBA. He had no college degree at all. He wasn’t a great manager, in the conventional sense. When it came to the bureaucratic aspects of running an organization, he was useless.
So what made him great? His gift, simply put, was marketing. In the words of Guy Kawasaki, who worked under Jobs at Apple: “Steve was the greatest marketer ever.” Here are 10 marketing lessons you can learn from him.
Jobs may have been a genius, but he was also smart enough to find people he could learn from. One of his first tutors was Regis McKenna, a legendary Silicon Valley marketer. Jobs sought him out even while Apple was still just a two-man operation in a garage. McKenna helped Jobs bring on Mike Markkula as Apple’s first angel investor and marketing guru. Markkula was an engineer by training but had worked in marketing at Intel. He joined Apple as an employee (for a time he was CEO) and created a set of founding marketing principles to which Apple still adheres today, 35 years later.
Later, Jobs befriended advertising expert Lee Clow of TBWA\Chiat\Day, who created Apple’s famous 1984 commercial and “Think Different” campaign. Clow became a lifelong advisor and friend to Jobs. Lesson: No matter how good you are, learn how to spot people who know more than you do, and then listen to them.
Kawasaki, who worked as an evangelist at Apple, says, “What Steve did that few marketers understand is that he first created a great product. It’s hard to market crap. Most marketers take whatever crap is thrown at them and put lipstick on the pig. Steve’s ‘secret’ was to control the product and the marketing, not just the marketing.”
When The Apple Computer Company launched in 1977, Jobs and Markkula outlined three core company principles. First, Apple would empathize with customers. Second, Apple would focus on doing a few things really well. Third, Apple would impute its values (simplicity, high quality) across everything it did — not just within the products themselves, but also through the packaging of products, the look of its stores, and even the way Apple created press releases.
Jobs did a remarkable thing at Apple by insisting on a consistency of design and taste across everything Apple did. Think that’s easy? Look at your company’s website. Do all the sections look like they were made by the same invisible hand? Or does the site look like a digital Frankenstein monster, with different sections cobbled together that all bear the look and feel of whoever happened to make those pages when that part of the site was built? And even if your website looks consistent, does it mesh with your press releases? With your storefront? Your trucks? Your product packaging? That unity is exactly what Jobs pulled off.
Jobs was a natural showman and a fan of big gestures. One great example was the 1984commercial for the new Macintosh. As always, Jobs decided to go big. He hired Ridley Scott, the director of Alien and Blade Runner, and spent $900,000 making the 60-second spot and $800,000 to run it one time during the Super Bowl. (That $1.7 million spend would be $3.4 million today.) This was a huge risk for the company, especially since it wasn’t clear that the ad would succeed. In fact, Apple’s board hated the ad so much they didn’t want to run it at all.
But the big bet paid off. The ad generated as much coverage as the Macintosh itself.
Apple described the 1984 commercial as a form of “event marketing,” meaning a campaign where the promotion itself is so revolutionary or unique that it gets covered as an event in its own right. Soon after the 1984 commercial, Jobs pulled something similar when he spent $2.5 million to buy the entire 40-page advertising hole in an edition of Newsweek. Other examples of event marketing were the “Think Different” and “I’m a Mac” campaigns. Yet another: every keynote Jobs ever did, with fans lining up overnight as if they were going to a Beatles reunion.
Jean-Louis Gassee, a former executive at Apple whose roles included running worldwide marketing, says Jobs understood the importance of storytelling, and used it again and again in things like the “I’m a Mac, You’re a PC” campaign. “We all want stories,” Gassee says. “That’s why there is so much whining about Apple and [CEO Tim] Cook right now. No story.”
The reason people lined up at Apple events, aside from Jobs’ rock-star charisma, was that he was a master of suspense and surprise, and there was always the hope that he might unveil something amazing. Months before a big product launch, Apple would start leaking information. First a hint, then a rumor, then other rumors that contradicted the first rumor. Most of it was misinformation, but it drove people into a frenzy of speculation.
By the time Jobs got up and showed off the iPhone, the world had been buzzing about it for a year, with people passing around photos of supposed prototypes and designers creating their own imaginary versions of what an Apple phone might look like. Jobs was also famous for his “One more thing” gesture, where, just when you thought a press conference was over, he’d say, “Oh, one more thing,” and then pull out something that blew everyone away. The lesson: Most marketers rush out to tell everyone as much as they can about their product. Jobs did the opposite — he held back information to get people excited.
The first rule of storytelling is that drama requires conflict. And the first rule of propaganda is that you need to have a bad guy. For Apple the original bad guy was IBM. Then the boogeyman became Microsoft. More recently, Jobs made Google and its Android operating system the villain. In each case, Jobs’ message was the same: The bad guy wants to take over the world and destroy it, and we are the noble underdog that can keep this from happening. (Check out this great clip of Jobs painting IBM as an evil empire that “wants it all,” that will create “an IBM-dominated and controlled future” while Apple is “the only hope” and “the only force that can ensure … freedom.”)
A lot of marketers shy away from this kind of rhetoric. They’re afraid it will rebound and hurt them. They act, very often, like needy children who want very much to be loved by everyone. To be sure, it’s definitely risky to create an enemy, especially if you choose an enemy that’s big and powerful. But Jobs believed that to sell product you had to first lead a movement. If you’re going to have a revolution, you need to have something or someone to rebel against.
Possibly the biggest thing Jobs did was turn customers into passionate advocates for the Apple brand. Those people who line up outside Apple stores every time there’s a new iPhone? Even when it’s just an incremental improvement on the last iPhone? They’re not there for the phone. They’ve come to show their support for the team, the way sports fans show up hours before a game wearing the team colors. Apple fans don’t think of themselves as customers. They feel as if they’re part of a movement, a mission, something larger than themselves.
The 1984 commercial contains not a single image of the Macintosh. There’s a mention of Apple and the Macintosh in the last 10 seconds. Same for “Think Different,” where the ads weren’t about products but rather the kind of people who would use the products. In the “I’m a Mac” campaign Jobs removed the computers and replaced them with people — two characters who serve as proxies for two different kinds of computers. Or consider the ad just below here, which you’ll note doesn’t contain a picture of a computer.
The ad above contains 10 words. Even today, on its website and in its advertising, Apple devotes tremendous effort to saying things in as few words as possible. Partly that’s aligning with the core value of simplicity at Apple. But it’s also because Jobs realized that images are much more powerful storytellers.
My favorite example of this was the introduction of the MacBook Air, where Jobs came out on stage with a manila envelope and slid the slim laptop out of it. There’s a video of it just below. Listen to the crowd when he does this. That one simple gesture blew people away and said more about the product than thousands of words could.
Or look at this recent ad for the iPhone’s camera. First of all, the ad is about only a single aspect of the iPhone — its camera. And the only marketing message in the entire 60-second spot is a five-second voice-over at the end that contains 13 words: “Every day, more photos are taken with the iPhone than any other camera.”
Or look at this one for the iPhone, featuring only its abilities as a music player. The ad has only 14 words in the last few seconds of a one-minute spot: “Every day, more people enjoy their music on the iPhone than any other phone.”
We all know the saying that “less is more.” And I suspect most of us completely agree with the sentiment, especially when it comes to words. So why don’t we do it? Probably because it’s hard work. As Mark Twain once said, “If I had more time, I’d write shorter.”
That may be the ultimate lesson about Steve Jobs — that a great deal of his success came from the fact that he was willing to take more time and work a little harder than most of us mere mortals.
Image credit: acaben
Experience has taught me that when I get a new business idea, working on the business plan is one of the last things to do. The three crucial steps I follow before even thinking of writing a business plan will work for you, too. First, examine the competitive landscape to see what companies are already there.What do they do poorly? What can you do differently to create a competitive advantage? Second, discuss the idea with potential customers, asking basic questions that determine how much they would value your product or service, which is perhaps the most important preliminary step to writing the business plan. Third, develop a sketch or basic prototype of the product. If it’s a service, map out vital steps and describe customer experiences.
By the way, when you are finally ready to write the business plan, make sure that you find professional help in areas that aren’t your expertise. If you don’t understand how to project cash flow for the next five years, don’t attempt it. Likewise, if you don’t know anything about marketing, which is likely the most important part of your plan, you shouldn’t be writing that section. A business plan should be a collaboration, not a solo endeavor. As a well-respected serial entrepreneur once told me, investors are skeptical of any business plan written by one person.
Even the academic world, known for resisting change, is reassessing the importance of the business plan. Candida Brush, chair of the entrepreneurship division and director of the Arthur M. Blank Center for Entrepreneurship at Babson College in Wellesley, Massachusetts, put it best in a recent interview withEntrepreneur magazine:
“Students come in here saying they want to write a business plan, but that’s the last thing they need to do. The only way to get to a point where you have a truly entrepreneurial idea is to use a creative approach. Observe. Reflect. Do mini experiments, as opposed to sitting in the library reading case studies. . . . And for us, even that plan is about the process, not creating a 50-page action plan. If you get married to a bad idea, a business plan means nothing.”
Babson students are encouraged to do three feasibility studies before moving forward with an idea or writing a business plan. The studies are similar to the steps I mentioned above. More universities and entrepreneurs should adopt this approach.
In short, too much emphasis is still placed on writing a business plan when you have an idea. There is an epidemic of “Frankenplans,” business plans that are a sloppy amalgamation of various business plans or templates; having the document itself seems more important than the quality of the actual plan. Instead of rushing to finish the document, make sure you take the crucial preliminary steps before you begin writing. If done thoroughly, these steps make your business plan stronger and greatly improve your chances of success and funding.
Technology Readiness Level (TRL) is a measure used to assess the maturity of evolving technologies (devices, materials, components, software, work processes, etc.) during its development and in some cases during early operations. Generally speaking, when a new technology is first invented or conceptualized, it is not suitable for immediate application. Instead, new technologies are usually subjected toexperimentation, refinement, and increasingly realistic testing. Once the technology is sufficiently proven, it can be incorporated into a system/subsystem.
Original NASA TRL Definitions (1989)
The TRL methodology was originated by Stan Sadin at NASA Headquarters in 1974. At that time, Ray Chase was the JPL Propulsion Division representative on the Jupiter Orbiter design team. At the suggestion of Stan Sadin, Mr Chase used this methodology to assess the technology readiness of the proposed JPL Jupiter Orbiter spacecraft design. Later Mr Chase spent a year at NASA Headquarters helping Mr Sadin institutionalize the TRL methodology. Mr Chase joined ANSER in 1978, where he used the TRL methodology to evaluate the technology readiness of proposed Air Force development programs. He published several articles during the 1980s and 90s on reusable launch vehicles utilizing the TRL methodology. These documented an expanded version of the methodology that included design tools, test facilities, and manufacturing readiness on the Air Force Have Not program. The Have Not program manager, Greg Jenkins, and Ray Chase published the expanded version of the TRL methodology, which included design and manufacturing. Leon McKinney and Mr Chase used the expanded version to assess the technology readiness of the ANSER team’s Highly Reusable Space Transportation (“HRST”) concept. ANSER also created an adapted version of the TRL methodology for proposed Homeland Security Agency programs.
In 1995, John C. Mankins, NASA, wrote a paper that discussed NASA’s use of TRLs and proposed expanded descriptions for each TRL. In 1999, the United States General Accounting Office produced an influential report that examined the differences in technology transition between the DOD and private industry. It concluded that the DOD takes greater risks and attempts to transition emerging technologies at lesser degrees of maturity than does private industry. The GAO concluded that use of immature technology increased overall program risk. The GAO recommended that the DOD adopt the use of NASA’s Technology Readiness Levels as a means of assessing technology maturity prior to transition. In 2001, the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Science and Technology issued a memorandum that endorsed use of TRLs in new major programs. Guidance for assessing technology maturity was incorporated into theDefense Acquisition Guidebook. Subsequently, the DOD developed detailed guidance for using TRLs in the 2003 DOD Technology Readiness Assessment Deskbook.
Instruments and spacecraft sub-systems are classified according to a “Technology Readiness level” (TRL) on a scale of 1 to 9. Levels 1 to 4 relate to creative and innovative technologies before or during the mission assessment phase. Levels 5 to 9 relate to existing technologies and to missions in definition phase.
|Technology Readiness Level||Description|
|TRL 1.||Basic principles observed and reported|
|TRL 2.||Technology concept and/or application formulated|
|TRL 3.||Analytical & experimental critical function and/or characteristic proof-of-concept|
|TRL 4.||Component and/or breadboard validation in laboratory environment|
|TRL 5.||Component and/or breadboard validation in relevant environment|
|TRL 6.||System/subsystem model or prototype demonstration in a relevant environment (ground or space)|
|TRL 7.||System prototype demonstration in a space environment|
|TRL 8.||Actual system completed and “Flight qualified” through test and demonstration (ground or space)|
|TRL 9.||Actual system “Flight proven” through successful mission operations|
If the TRL is too low, then a mission risks being jeopardized by delays or cost over-runs. It is a responsibility of the Advanced Studies and Technology Preparation Division to promote the technology readiness at a very early stage in order to make new missions feasible.
The following definition is based on API recommended practice and is used in the oil and gas industry.
TRL 0 Unproven idea/proposal Paper concept. No analysis or testing has been performed
TRL 1 Concept demonstrated. Basic functionality demonstrated by analysis, reference to features shared with existing technology or through testing on individual subcomponents/subsystems. Shall show that the technology is likely to meet specified objectives with additional testing
TRL 2 Concept validated. Concept design or novel features of design validated through model or small scale testing in laboratory environment. Shall show that the technology can meet specified acceptance criteria with additional testing
TRL 3 New technology tested Prototype built and functionality demonstrated through testing over a limited range of operating conditions. These tests can be done on a scaled version if scalable
TRL 4 Technology qualified for first use Full-scale prototype built and technology qualified through testing in intended environment, simulated or actual. The new hardware is now ready for first use
TRL 5 Technology integration tested Full-scale prototype built and integrated into intended operating system with full interface and functionality tests
TRL 6 Technology installed Full-scale prototype built and integrated into intended operating system with full interface and functionality test program in intended environment. The technology has shown acceptable performance and reliability over a period of time
TRL 7 Proven technology Technology integrated into intended operating system. The technology has successfully operated with acceptable performance and reliability within the predefined criteria
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) uses the following guidelines throughout the department in conducting Technology Readiness Assessments (TRAs) and developing Technology Maturation Plans (TMPs).
|Technology Readiness Level||Description|
|TRL 1.||Scientific research begins translation to applied R&D – Lowest level of technology readiness. Scientific research begins to be translated into applied research and development. Examples might include paper studies of a technology’s basic properties.|
|TRL 2.||Invention begins – Once basic principles are observed, practical applications can be invented. Applications are speculative and there may be no proof or detailed analysis to support the assumptions. Examples are limited to analytic studies.|
|TRL 3.||Active R&D is initiated – Active research and development is initiated. This includes analytical studies and laboratory studies to physically validate analytical predictions of separate elements of the technology. Examples include components that are not yet integrated or representative.|
|TRL 4.||Basic technological components are integrated – Basic technological components are integrated to establish that the pieces will work together.|
|TRL 5.||Fidelity of breadboard technology improves significantly – The basic technological components are integrated with reasonably realistic supporting elements so it can be tested in a simulated environment. Examples include “high fidelity” laboratory integration of components.|
|TRL 6.||Model/prototype is tested in relevant environment – Representative model or prototype system, which is well beyond that of TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in a technology’s demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high-fidelity laboratory environment or in simulated operational environment.|
|TRL 7.||Prototype near or at planned operational system – Represents a major step up from TRL 6, requiring demonstration of an actual system prototype in an operational environment.|
|TRL 8.||Technology is proven to work – Actual technology completed and qualified through test and demonstration.|
|TRL 9.||Actual application of technology is in its final form – Technology proven through successful operations.|
A Technology Readiness Level Calculator was developed by the United States Air Force. This tool is a standard set of questions implemented in Microsoft Excelthat produces a graphical display of the TRLs achieved. This tool is intended to provide a snapshot of technology maturity at a given point in time.
The Technology Program Management Model was developed by the United States Army. The TPMM is a TRL-gated high-fidelity activity model that provides a flexible management tool to assist Technology Managers in planning, managing, and assessing their technologies for successful technology transition. The model provides a core set of activities including systems engineering and program management tasks that are tailored to the technology development and management goals. This approach is comprehensive, yet it consolidates the complex activities that are relevant to the development and transition of a specific technology program into one integrated model.
It is possible to create a good startup with a good idea, but great startups are often the result of ideas that would have seemed ridiculous if you had heard them prior to seeing them working.
Ask yourself, if you were a venture capitalist pitched one of these ideas, what would your reaction have been?
Harvard Innovation Lab Workshop
by Michael J Skok on Feb 28, 2012
Como pretende suprir as expectativas dos seus consumidores nos próximos 12 meses?
4 de Outubro não foi apenas o dia em que se assinalaram os 65 anos do primeiro voo supersónico de avião.
Foi, também, o dia em que o austríaco Felix Baumgartner cumpriu com sucesso a Missão Red Bull Stratos, uma “aventura” nos limites do espaço promovida pela marca de bebidas energéticas. Depois de uma viagem num balão de hélio gigante, que atingiu os 39.044 metros de altitude, Baumgartner lançou-se num voo estratosférico, a 1.342,8 Km/hora, que bateu três recordes, que estavam por bater há 52 anos: o de voo mais alto de balão tripulado (39.044 metros), o de salto mais alto de paraquedas, e o de primeira pessoa a romper a barreira do som em queda livre (a 1.342 km/hora). Os dados estão agora sujeitos a uma confirmação oficial.
Se os três recordes não forem suficientes, há um outro marco que a Red Bull parece ter atingido. Como noticia o Huffington Post, a marca de bebidas energéticas pode estar a alterar o futuro do Marketing, já que a campanha Red Bull Stratos deverá ser a mais bem sucedida de todos os tempos, reforça a mesma publicação.
Foram mais de oito milhões as pessoas, de todo o mundo, que assistiram à transmissão em directo, através do YouTube, do feito de Felix Baumgartner, a primeira pessoa a quebrar a barreira do som.
Entretanto, a Red Bull quebrou, também ela, as barreiras tradicionais do Marketing, patrocínio e social media, passando de uma insígnia de bebidas energéticas para um gerador de buzz de escala internacional, “que faz com que as conquistas de outros inovadores do Marketing, como a Apple, pareçam pequenas por comparação”, adianta o Huffington Post.
Além da “espectacularidade” da proeza, o passo dado pela Red Bull pode traduzir-se em estimativas de vendas de várias dezenas de milhares de dólares, de acordo com Ben Sturner, fundador e CEO da Leverage Agency, uma empresa de Marketing de Media, Entretenimento e Desporto, sediada em Nova Iorque.
De acordo com um porta-voz da Red Bull, a empresa não revela informações financeiras ou de marketing. Ainda assim, Ben Sturner garantiu àquela publicação que «não ficaria surpreendido se eles atingissem um mês recorde, em termos de vendas. Foi a notícia principal em noticiários, não apenas de desporto, e eles não poderiam transmitir a informação sem mencionar a Red Bull. E com o buzz posterior e o envolvimento online, alguns dos principais utilizadores do Twitter, com milhões de seguidores, a espalhar a palavra sobre a Red Bul… Isso [é um valor que] não pode ser quantificado», continuou.
A exposição massiva, adiantou Sturner, pode traduzir-se mesmo numa mudança no comportamento do consumidor, que poderá deixar de comprar marcas como a Monster para passar a adquirir Red Bull. No final, a acção acabará por cativar novos consumidores, que trarão à marca mais dinheiro. Em 2011 a empresa austríaca vendeu mais de 4,6 mil milhões de latas de Red Bull, em todo o mundo.
Como noticiou a ABC News, além do YouTube, o salto de Felix Baumgartner foi transmitido por mais de 40 estações televisivas e 130 plataformas digitais. A fotografia pós-salto de Baumgartner, publicada no Facebook da Red Bull, reuniu mais de 216 mil likes, 10 mil comentários e mais de 29 mil partilhas, em 40 minutos. Além disso, metade dos trending topics do Twitter estavam relacionados com a Red Bull Stratos.
O fundador e CEO da Leverage Agency explicou que a força deste evento de marketing reside na sinergia entre uma acção radical e a mensagem já existente da empresa. O salto, afirmou, «bate mesmo com a mensagem da marca, de que o Red Bull te dá asas».
Também ajudou que o posicionamento da marca estivesse omnipresente. «Não era possível tirar uma fotografia de Felix [Baumgartner] sem o logótipo da Red Bull e não se poderia falar dele sem referir o Red Bull Stratos», reforçou.
Ao criar um evento com esta singularidade, a Red Bull mostrou saber aproveitar o potencial para ultrapassar padrões de ouro do Marketing tradicional, dominado por companhias de grandes dimensões. «Quando uma marca está na Super Bowl, está entre cerca de 70 anúncios. Quando marca presença na pista da Nascar, está entre 44 equipas. Isto [Red Bull Stratos] é sobre ter mão em algo que vai deixar uma marca», rematou Ben Sturner.
O Red Bull Stratos, no qual Felix Baumgartner trabalhou desde 2005, com a Red Bull como patrocinadora, não foi a primeira tentativa da marca de “forçar” os limites do Marketing. A insígnia é conhecida pela sua estratégia geradora de buzz entre um target jovem, que contempla a associação a eventos desportivos radicais como a Red Bull Air Race.
Mas ao levar a bom porto a tentativa de redifinir o conceito de “radical”, o Red Bull Stratos dá aos marketeers de pequenos negócios «algo em que pensar», defende Sturner. «Como é que se ultrapassa o “lixo” e se faz algo único? Veja a sua marca como uma história. Torne-se grande, corra riscos. A sua marca pode estar na primeira página de publicações globais se fizer algo fora do comum.» «Nos dias de hoje, o importante é o envolvimento e a amplificação da mensagem, e a Red Bull atingiu ambos os objectivos», terminou.